Reference

19th Century

Sites

* New Zealand Gazette Archive
New Zealand Gazette Archive comprises searchable and browsable PDF (portable document format) copies of issues of the New Zealand Gazette and related publications from 1841. Published by LexisNexis.
Access this at any of our libraries.
* Papers Past
Papers Past contains more than one million pages of digitised New Zealand newspapers and periodicals. The collection covers the years 1839 to 1932 and includes publications from all regions of New Zealand. 42 titles have page images browsable by date with 17 having titles searchable full text. Provided by the National Library of New Zealand.
* Ashburton Guardian
Available online: 1 January 1887 - 31 December 1921 (2191 issues). Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The 1870s and 1880s saw a flurry of newspaper publishing in Ashburton. First there was the Ashburton Mail, established in 1877 by Joseph Ivess, a prolific publisher of country newspapers. This was followed by the Evening Echo in 1878. The next year Ivess published the Evening News to help him in his bid for the Ashburton mayoralty. Charles Dixon and Horace Weeks, the owners of the Echo, now called the Ashburton Herald, started the Ashburton Guardian to oppose Ivess' ambitions. Ivess narrowly lost the election although it's not clear what, if any, effect the Guardian had on this.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Bay of Plenty Times
Available online: 3 November 1875 - 16 May 1910 (5337 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Bay of Plenty Times first appeared on 4 September 1872, as a bi-weekly, tabloid sized newspaper. Although the paper experienced some difficult times in its first 40 years, it continued to be published and has prospered to now become one of New Zealand's largest daily newspapers. This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Bruce Herald
Available online: 5 January 1865 - 28 December 1905 (3872 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Bruce Herald was published at Milton from 1864 to 1971. It was one of New Zealand's longest running country newspapers.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Bush Advocate
Available online: 1 May 1888 - 30 June 1909 (3333 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past . James Clayton established the Bush Advocate in Dannevirke (in Hawkes Bay) on 8 May 1888. It started as a tri-weekly newspaper published on Tuesdays, Thursday and Saturdays. The paper intended to be the voice of a large geographic area, which was clear from its subtitle: "the Takapau, Ormondville, Norsewood, Makotuhu, Dannevirke and Wainui District Advertiser".
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Clutha Leader
Available online: 9 July 1874 - 28 December 1900 (1468 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Clutha Leader was first published, weekly, in 1874. It was the first newspaper in Balcutha to be established that has lasted over time. It is still published on a weekly basis today by South Otago Newspapers.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Colonist
Available online: 1 January 1890 - 31 December 1910 (6573 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Colonist was founded in 1857 by a group of Nelson residents as a means to oppose the dominance of the large landowners of the district. At the time its only opposition was the Nelson Examiner, which the Colonist was largely established to challenge and to provide an alternative voice.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Daily Southern Cross Auckland
Available online: 22 April 1843 - 30 December 1876 (6142 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Southern Cross began as a weekly paper in Auckland on 22 April 1843. In 1862 it became the first daily newspaper in Auckland changing its name to the Daily Southern Cross. The Southern Cross was merged with the New Zealand Herald, which is still published today, in 1876.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Ellesmere Guardian
Available online: 3 January 1891 - 29 December 1906 (1158 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. Launched in 1880, the Ellesmere Guardian was the second newspaper published in the Ellesmere area,
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Evening Post
Available online: 8 February 1865 - 30 October 1915 (15719 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Evening Post was founded by Henry Blundell and began publication as a daily in Wellington on 8 February 1865.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Fair Play
Available online: 4 November 1893 - 1 November 1894 (27 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. Fair Play was published weekly in Wellington from November 1893 to April 1894, and then monthly from May 1894 to November 1894, when it stopped being produced. Although registered as a newspaper it was more properly an illustrated serial, focusing on political and cultural topics as well as gossip, sport, light literature and satirical sketches of public figures.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Feilding Star
Available online: 17 June 1882 - 31 December 1909 (6804 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Feilding Star was the first newspaper to publish in Feilding.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Hawera & Normanby Star
Available online: 10 April 1880 - 31 December 1910 (7948 issues). Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Hawera & Normanby Star was founded in 1880 by Patrick Galvin, Joseph Innes and J.C. Yorke. Southern Taranaki was being opened up at this time and they saw an opportunity to establish a paper there.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Hawke's Bay Herald
Available online: 24 September 1857 - 31 December 1900 (8167 issues). Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The first issue of the Hawke's Bay Herald and Ahuriri Advocate was produced in Napier on 24 September 1857. The initial incentive for the paper was the call for provincial separation from Wellington, which occurred in 1858. The paper was first published as a weekly newspaper, became bi-weekly in 1861 and then daily in 1871. The 1931 Napier earthquake signalled the end of the paper as an independent entity. A Hastings paper, the Hawke's Bay Tribune, took over printing the Herald and the two papers merged in 1937 to form the Hawke's Bay Herald-Tribune.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Hawke's Bay Weekly Times
Available online: 7 January 1867 - 31 December 1868 (105 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Hawke's Bay Weekly Times was first published on 6 February 1865. It was published weekly as a summary of the stories in the Hawke's Bay Times in the previous week. The paper was intended as a cheap alternative to the daily version for people living in the isolated rural areas of Hawke's Bay but it struggled to survive and finally stopped publishing in December 1868.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* The Inangahua Times
Available online:1 January 1877 - 31 December 1900 (4710 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Inangahua times was published in Reefton from 1875 until it ceased publication in 1942 under pressure of wartime restrictions. Initially it was issued three times a week, by 1891 it came out daily. By 1888 there were three daily newspapers in Reefton although the town had a population of only 2,000.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Manawatu Herald
Available online: 27 August 1878 - 30 December 1900 (2135 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Manawatu Herald was founded in 1878 and was the first paper published in Foxton. The paper was initially published twice a week then moved to thrice weekly in 1890, back to bi-weekly in 1944 and then to weekly from 1956. In 1955 the title was changed to the Foxton Herald and in 1961 it reverted to the Manawatu Herald. The paper ceased publication in 1997.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Marlborough Express
Available online: 4 January 1868 - 31 December 1900 (7093 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Marlborough Express is the daily newspaper of Blenheim and has been published there since 1866. It became a daily in 1880 and took over its rival the Marlborough Times in 1895.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Mataura Ensign
Available online: 2 January 1883 - 29 December 1900 (1846 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Mataura Ensign, named after the Scottish newspaper, the Northern Ensign, was first produced in Gore (in Southland) on the 10 May 1878. The early years of the paper had a strong literary flavour including regular articles from 'Uncle Phil' who encouraged children to write well. The paper is still published daily today as the Ensign.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Nelson Evening Mail
Available online: 5 March 1866 - 31 December 1909 (13688 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Nelson Evening Mail was the first daily newspaper published in Nelson. First published on 5 March 1866, it continues to be published today as the Nelson Mail.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle
Available online: 12 March 1842 - 15 January 1874 (3190 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle was the first newspaper published in the South Island. It was established by Charles Elliott (1811-1876) in 1842, within a few weeks of the New Zealand Company settlers arriving in Nelson.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Advertiser and Bay of Islands Gazette
Available online: 15 June 1840 - 10 December 1840 (27 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The New Zealand Advertiser is a significant New Zealand newspaper, which was published in Kororareka from June to December 1840 and ran for twenty-seven issues. It was New Zealand's second earliest newspaper and a forerunner to the Government Gazette. The Advertiser also was effectively suppressed by the government for criticising its policy on land.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Colonist and Port Nicholson Advertiser
Available online: 2 August 1842 - 1 August 1843 (105 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The New Zealand Colonist and Port Nicholson Advertiser was first published in Wellington bi-weekly on the 2 August 1842 and continued until the 3 August 1843. The paper was originally produced as a counter to the New Zealand Gazette, which began publication in 1839 and was a staunch advocate of the New Zealand Company.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Gazette and Wellington Spectator
Available online: 21 August 1839 - 25 September 1844 (369 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealand Gazette was New Zealandís first newspaper. The Gazette was first published in London under the auspices of the New Zealand Company on 21 August 1839. A revised edition was issued a fortnight later. The second issue was published on 18 April 1840 in Wellington making it the first newspaper printed in New Zealand
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Illustrated Magazine
Available online: 1 October 1899 - 1 September 1905 (72 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The Illustrated Magazine was a monthly, and was published in Auckland from 1899 to 1905. It carried contributions from most of the top New Zealand writers of the day including Apirana Ngata, Jane Mander, James Cowan and Elsdon Best. It featured poetry, short stories and articles and was heavily illustrated by the likes of Frances Hodgkins and Kennaway Henderson.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Spectator and Cook Strait Guardian
Available online: 12 October 1844 - 30 August 1865 (1035 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealand Spectator was the first Wellington newspaper to last for any length of time. It began weekly publication in October 1844, several weeks after the demise of the New Zealand Gazette, Wellington's and New Zealand's first newspaper.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Tablet
Available online: 3 May 1873 - 30 December 1909 (1913 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The NZ Tablet was a Catholic periodical that was published weekly in Dunedin from 1873 to1996. It was set up to represent the interests of Irish Catholics throughout the nation. The Tablet was, particularly in its first fifty years or so, one of the most significant religious and political journals published in New Zealand.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealander
Available online: 7 June 1845 - 29 December 1852 (701 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealander began publishing weekly in Auckland in June 1845. Under competitive pressure it became a bi-weekly in 1847 and by 1859 it had become the leading daily newspaper in New Zealand. However, its pro-Maori policy led to a decline in circulation and it stopped publication in 1866.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealander
Available online: 7 June 1845 - 29 December 1852 (701 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealander began publishing weekly in Auckland in June 1845. Under competitive pressure it became a bi-weekly in 1847 and by 1859 it had become the leading daily newspaper in New Zealand. However, its pro-Māori policy lead to a decline in circulation and it stopped publication in 1866.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Niupepa
A selection of "periodicals published in Māori or for Māori readership" from 1842 to 1932. Can be searched by keyword or browsed by date or the name of the periodical.
* North Otago Times
Available online: 25 February 1864 - 31 December 1900 (9000 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The North Otago times was first published on 25 February 1864 under the title, Oamaru times and Waitaki reporter as a weekly paper. In 1876 it began daily publication which continued until its demise in 1932.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Northern Advocate
Available online: 8 January 1887 - 31 December 1906 (1054 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Northern Advocate was launched in 1875 by George Edwin Alderton under the title Whangarei Comet and Northern Advertiser. In 1877 the title changed to the Northern Advocate and General Advertiser. As the title suggests, the Advocate was set up to voice the concerns of Northlanders. Its stated purpose was to redress "the real criminal injustice the northern settlements laboured under from the legislature of the colony". The Advocate quickly established itself. Initially it was issued weekly. It had 12 pages and carried a small section printed in Maori. It probably started daily publication in 1902 in response to the setting up of another newspaper in Whangarei, the Northern Chronicle.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Observer Auckland
Available online: 18 September 1880 - 25 December 1909 (1363 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealand Observer was one of a number of illustrated weekly newspapers popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. It was first published in Auckland in 1880 and continued, with name changes, until November 1954.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Otago Witness
Available online: 11 January 1851 - 24 November 1909 (3055 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Witness began in Dunedin in January 1851 as a four page, fortnightly newspaper. It became a weekly in August that year. At this time illustrated weekly newspapers were a popular and important form of publication in New Zealand and the paper continued to be published until 1932.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Oxford Observer
Available online: 17 August 1889 - 31 August 1901 (472 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The Oxford Observer began weekly publication in 1889. Also published as: Oxford and Cust Observer and Canterbury Liberal; Oxford Observer and Canterbury Democrat
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Poverty Bay Herald
Available online: 1 January 1879 - 31 December 1920 (12813 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Poverty Bay Herald was first published in Gisborne on 5 January 1874. It is still published today, under the name Gisborne Herald, and is one of the last remaining privately operated daily newspapers in New Zealand.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* The Press Christchurch
Available online: 25 May 1861 to 29 December 1928 (20192 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Press published its first weekly issue on 25 May 1861 - a six page paper every Saturday costing 6d - a decade after the Lyttelton Times made its appearance as Canterbury's first newspaper. But it did have the distinction, in March 1863, of being the province's first daily - 5,000 copies of the four-page paper were printed, selling for 3d a copy.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Southern regional news index Dunedin
An index of articles from local Otago newspapers and other sources back to 1993. Some information from the 1850s and 1930s is also included. The articles are of local interest and also include issues of national importance. Index only.
* Southland Times
Available online: 14 November 1862 - 30 December 1905 (8942 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Times was established to oppose the Southern News (later the Southland Daily News), another Invercargill newspaper.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Star Christchurch
Available online: 4 May 1868 to 31 December 1914 (14589 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Star began publication as the evening edition of the Lyttelton times on 14 May 1868. Although subject to intense competition during the early decades of the last century the Star survived and continues to be published today as a biweekly community newspaper. Also published as: The Star, Sun, Christchurch Times; Christchurch Star-Sun
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Taranaki Herald New Plymouth
Available online: 4 August 1852 - 31 December 1909 (11646 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Taranaki herald was the first newspaper published in Taranaki, with New Plymouth being the last of the early European settlements to get its own newspaper. The paper survived a number of controversies in its early years but the 1970s and 1980s were difficult times for evening newspapers and the Herald ceased publication in 1989.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Te Aroha News
Available online: 9 June 1883 - 28 December 1889 (438 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Te Aroha News was the first newspaper published in Te Aroha, in the Waikato. It was a weekly paper and the first issue came out, on 9 June 1883, under the title Te Aroha News and Upper Thames Advocate. The Te Aroha News continued to be published uninterrupted until 17 September 1982.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Timaru Herald
Available online: 11 June 1864 - 31 December 1900 (9135 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Timaru Herald is the daily newspaper in Timaru. It has been published continuously since 1864, and was set up to promote the interests of Timaru and Gladstone districts against those of the Canterbury province to which they belonged. In the 1870s it was one of New Zealand's most important newspapers. Originally publication was weekly, and in 1866 the Herald became a biweekly.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Tuapeka Times
Available online: 15 February 1868 - 29 December 1909 (4049 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Tuapeka Times was published in Lawrence, in Central Otago from 1868 to 1941.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Victoria Times
Available online: 15 September 1841 - 15 September 1841 (1 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The Victoria Times was only published once but is noteworthy for several reasons; it was Wellington's second earliest paper, it was lithographed rather than letter-pressed and it contains a plan of Wellington on the back page.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Waikato Times
Available online: 2 May 1872 - 31 December 1918 (6308 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Waikato Times began life as the tri-weekly Waikato Times and Thames Valley Gazette on 2 May 1872. It was first published in Ngaruawahia but moved to Hamilton in 1875. The paper succeeded against all competitors and continues as a daily to the present day.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Waimate Daily Advertiser
Available online: 28 May 1898 - 29 December 1900 (302 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Waimate Daily Advertiser began life as the Waimate Advertiser, a four-page weekly publication, on 28 May 1898. Editorially it aimed to be politically independent and described itself as taking an active interest in the social affairs of Waimate (in South Canterbury) and the surrounding district. The paper started publishing daily in 1914 and changed its name to the Waimate Daily Advertiser in 1916.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Wanganui Chronicle
Available online: 1 January 1874 - 31 December 1900 (8410 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. Wanganui was the first town in the wider Wellington region to have it's own newspaper, the Wanganui Record, which was published for a few weeks in 1853. The Wanganui Chronicle began publication on 18 September 1856 and came out tri-weekly in 1867. Under competitive pressure it became a daily in 1871.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Wanganui Herald
Available online: 3 January 1876 - 31 December 1909 (10632 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Wanganui Herald (originally the Evening Herald) was first published by John Ballance as a daily newspaper on 4 June 1867. Ballance was prominent in local and national politics. He was leader of the first Liberal government and premier of New Zealand from 1891 until he died in 1893.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Wellington Independent
Available online: 3 January 1860 - 30 June 1874 (2706 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The first issue of the Wellington Independent was published on 2 April 1845. For a time it was considered one of the best newspapers in New Zealand and it had considerable influence. However, it failed to grow in the 1860's and early 1870's and, despite changing from bi-weekly to tri-weekly publication, was replaced by the New Zealand Times in 1874.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* West Coast Times
Available online: 1 July 1865 - 31 December 1909 (13506 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The West Coast Times started in May 1865, only two months after the Provincial Government in Canterbury had proclaimed the goldfield on the West Coast. The paper prospered on the back of the gold boom and rival newspapers were established in opposition. In 1917 the West Coast Times was absorbed into the Hokitika Guardian and Star.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.