Reference

Early Twentieth Century

Sites

* New Zealand Gazette Archive
New Zealand Gazette Archive comprises searchable and browsable PDF (portable document format) copies of issues of the New Zealand Gazette and related publications from 1841. Published by LexisNexis.
Access this at any of our libraries.
* Papers Index Christchurch
A selective index of articles, mainly of local interest, published in The Press from 2 January 1995 and the Christchurch Star from 14 October 1998. Index only.
* Papers Past
Papers Past contains more than one million pages of digitised New Zealand newspapers and periodicals. The collection covers the years 1839 to 1932 and includes publications from all regions of New Zealand. 42 titles have page images browsable by date with 17 having titles searchable full text. Provided by the National Library of New Zealand.
* Ashburton Guardian
Available online: 1 January 1887 - 31 December 1921 (2191 issues). Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The 1870s and 1880s saw a flurry of newspaper publishing in Ashburton. First there was the Ashburton Mail, established in 1877 by Joseph Ivess, a prolific publisher of country newspapers. This was followed by the Evening Echo in 1878. The next year Ivess published the Evening News to help him in his bid for the Ashburton mayoralty. Charles Dixon and Horace Weeks, the owners of the Echo, now called the Ashburton Herald, started the Ashburton Guardian to oppose Ivess' ambitions. Ivess narrowly lost the election although it's not clear what, if any, effect the Guardian had on this.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Bay of Plenty Times
Available online: 3 November 1875 - 16 May 1910 (5337 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Bay of Plenty Times first appeared on 4 September 1872, as a bi-weekly, tabloid sized newspaper. Although the paper experienced some difficult times in its first 40 years, it continued to be published and has prospered to now become one of New Zealand's largest daily newspapers. This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Bruce Herald
Available online: 5 January 1865 - 28 December 1905 (3872 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Bruce Herald was published at Milton from 1864 to 1971. It was one of New Zealand's longest running country newspapers.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Bush Advocate
Available online: 1 May 1888 - 30 June 1909 (3333 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past . James Clayton established the Bush Advocate in Dannevirke (in Hawkes Bay) on 8 May 1888. It started as a tri-weekly newspaper published on Tuesdays, Thursday and Saturdays. The paper intended to be the voice of a large geographic area, which was clear from its subtitle: "the Takapau, Ormondville, Norsewood, Makotuhu, Dannevirke and Wainui District Advertiser".
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Colonist
Available online: 1 January 1890 - 31 December 1910 (6573 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Colonist was founded in 1857 by a group of Nelson residents as a means to oppose the dominance of the large landowners of the district. At the time its only opposition was the Nelson Examiner, which the Colonist was largely established to challenge and to provide an alternative voice.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Ellesmere Guardian
Available online: 3 January 1891 - 29 December 1906 (1158 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. Launched in 1880, the Ellesmere Guardian was the second newspaper published in the Ellesmere area,
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Evening Post
Available online: 8 February 1865 - 30 October 1915 (15719 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Evening Post was founded by Henry Blundell and began publication as a daily in Wellington on 8 February 1865.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Feilding Star
Available online: 17 June 1882 - 31 December 1909 (6804 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Feilding Star was the first newspaper to publish in Feilding.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Hawera & Normanby Star
Available online: 10 April 1880 - 31 December 1910 (7948 issues). Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Hawera & Normanby Star was founded in 1880 by Patrick Galvin, Joseph Innes and J.C. Yorke. Southern Taranaki was being opened up at this time and they saw an opportunity to establish a paper there.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Kai Tiaki - the Journal of the Nurses of New Zealand
Available online: January 1908 - November 1929 (89 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. Kai Tiaki - the Journal of the Nurses of New Zealand, as it was originally titled, was founded by the indomitable nursing visionary Hester Maclean, who came to New Zealand from Australia in 1906 to take up the government role of Assistant Inspector of Hospitals. In this role, she had oversight of all nursing matters. Using her own funds and working in her own time, she established Kai Tiaki, first published in January 1908.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Nelson Evening Mail
Available online: 5 March 1866 - 31 December 1909 (13688 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Nelson Evening Mail was the first daily newspaper published in Nelson. First published on 5 March 1866, it continues to be published today as the Nelson Mail.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Free Lance
Available online: 7 July 1900 - 25 December 1909 (496 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealand Free Lance was one of New Zealand's most popular weekly, pictorial newspapers. It was first published in Wellington in 1900 by Geddis and Blomfield as a spin-off from their successful Auckland weekly, the NZ Observer and Free Lance. The publishers split the title, with the Auckland paper becoming the NZ Observer and the Wellington paper taking the name Free Lance.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Illustrated Magazine
Available online: 1 October 1899 - 1 September 1905 (72 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The Illustrated Magazine was a monthly, and was published in Auckland from 1899 to 1905. It carried contributions from most of the top New Zealand writers of the day including Apirana Ngata, Jane Mander, James Cowan and Elsdon Best. It featured poetry, short stories and articles and was heavily illustrated by the likes of Frances Hodgkins and Kennaway Henderson.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* New Zealand Tablet
Available online: 3 May 1873 - 30 December 1909 (1913 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The NZ Tablet was a Catholic periodical that was published weekly in Dunedin from 1873 to1996. It was set up to represent the interests of Irish Catholics throughout the nation. The Tablet was, particularly in its first fifty years or so, one of the most significant religious and political journals published in New Zealand.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Niupepa
A selection of "periodicals published in Māori or for Māori readership" from 1842 to 1932. Can be searched by keyword or browsed by date or the name of the periodical.
* Northern Advocate
Available online: 8 January 1887 - 31 December 1906 (1054 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Northern Advocate was launched in 1875 by George Edwin Alderton under the title Whangarei Comet and Northern Advertiser. In 1877 the title changed to the Northern Advocate and General Advertiser. As the title suggests, the Advocate was set up to voice the concerns of Northlanders. Its stated purpose was to redress "the real criminal injustice the northern settlements laboured under from the legislature of the colony". The Advocate quickly established itself. Initially it was issued weekly. It had 12 pages and carried a small section printed in Maori. It probably started daily publication in 1902 in response to the setting up of another newspaper in Whangarei, the Northern Chronicle.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* NZ Truth
Available online: 7 July 1906 - 22 December 1930 (1276 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The NZ Truth was for many years one of the country’s most colourful, controversial and popular newspapers. The Truth was launched, in Wellington, by the Australian newspaper publisher John Norton in June 1905. The Truth stood out from the other New Zealand newspapers because it was overtly political and reported the unseemly aspects of life in immoderate prose. Under Robert Hogg, editor from 1913 to 1922, the paper was strongly socialist. It supported the revolutionary Industrial Workers of the World during the 1913 general strike, opposed conscription during the World War One and published letters from pacifist Archibald Baxter.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Observer Auckland
Available online: 18 September 1880 - 25 December 1909 (1363 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The New Zealand Observer was one of a number of illustrated weekly newspapers popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. It was first published in Auckland in 1880 and continued, with name changes, until November 1954.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Otago Witness
Available online: 11 January 1851 - 24 November 1909 (3055 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Witness began in Dunedin in January 1851 as a four page, fortnightly newspaper. It became a weekly in August that year. At this time illustrated weekly newspapers were a popular and important form of publication in New Zealand and the paper continued to be published until 1932.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Otautau Standard and Wallace County Chronicle
Available online: 3 May 1905 - 27 December 1932 (1457 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Otautau Standard was a weekly newspaper started by Frank Hyde in 1905. Hyde was the owner of another paper in the area, the Winton Record. Hyde sold the Standard to John Fisher the next year. The Fisher family remained in charge until publication ceased in 1946. They gave the high cost of labour and plant as the main reasons for closing.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Oxford Observer
Available online: 17 August 1889 - 31 August 1901 (472 issues) Every known issue of this newspaper is in Papers Past. The Oxford Observer began weekly publication in 1889. Also published as: Oxford and Cust Observer and Canterbury Liberal; Oxford Observer and Canterbury Democrat
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* The Press Christchurch
Available online: 25 May 1861 to 29 December 1928 (20192 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Press published its first weekly issue on 25 May 1861 - a six page paper every Saturday costing 6d - a decade after the Lyttelton Times made its appearance as Canterbury's first newspaper. But it did have the distinction, in March 1863, of being the province's first daily - 5,000 copies of the four-page paper were printed, selling for 3d a copy.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Southern regional news index Dunedin
An index of articles from local Otago newspapers and other sources back to 1993. Some information from the 1850s and 1930s is also included. The articles are of local interest and also include issues of national importance. Index only.
* Southland Times
Available online: 14 November 1862 - 30 December 1905 (8942 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Times was established to oppose the Southern News (later the Southland Daily News), another Invercargill newspaper.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Star Christchurch
Available online: 4 May 1868 to 31 December 1914 (14589 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Star began publication as the evening edition of the Lyttelton times on 14 May 1868. Although subject to intense competition during the early decades of the last century the Star survived and continues to be published today as a biweekly community newspaper. Also published as: The Star, Sun, Christchurch Times; Christchurch Star-Sun
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* The Sun Christchurch
Available online: 26 February 1914 to 31 December 1915 (595 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. In 1912, Edward C Huie resigned from editorship of the Press Company's Evening News in Christchurch, frustrated that the proprietors were not interested in the young Australian's ideas about livelier journalism and layout. The Evening News' primary role was to carry news and advertisements too late for that day's Press. The 36-year-old Huie announced shortly afterwards his intention to launch a third evening paper, a competitor to the Evening News and the Lyttelton Times' Star.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Taranaki Herald New Plymouth
Available online: 4 August 1852 - 31 December 1909 (11646 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Taranaki herald was the first newspaper published in Taranaki, with New Plymouth being the last of the early European settlements to get its own newspaper. The paper survived a number of controversies in its early years but the 1970s and 1980s were difficult times for evening newspapers and the Herald ceased publication in 1989.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Tuapeka Times
Available online: 15 February 1868 - 29 December 1909 (4049 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Tuapeka Times was published in Lawrence, in Central Otago from 1868 to 1941.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* Wanganui Herald
Available online: 3 January 1876 - 31 December 1909 (10632 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The Wanganui Herald (originally the Evening Herald) was first published by John Ballance as a daily newspaper on 4 June 1867. Ballance was prominent in local and national politics. He was leader of the first Liberal government and premier of New Zealand from 1891 until he died in 1893.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.
* West Coast Times
Available online: 1 July 1865 - 31 December 1909 (13506 issues) Not all issues of this newspaper are in Papers Past. The West Coast Times started in May 1865, only two months after the Provincial Government in Canterbury had proclaimed the goldfield on the West Coast. The paper prospered on the back of the gold boom and rival newspapers were established in opposition. In 1917 the West Coast Times was absorbed into the Hokitika Guardian and Star.
This fulltext collection is a part of Papers Past from the National Library of New Zealand.